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Download Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East by Philip S. Khoury, Joseph Kostiner PDF

By Philip S. Khoury, Joseph Kostiner

Tribes and nation Formation is the 1st attempt to assemble the disciplines of background, anthropology, and political technological know-how round a massive subject that none of those on my own is sufficiently outfitted to deal with. How and why did sure tribal societies metamorphose through the years into states? students curious about common questions of concept and method and the interplay of anthropology and background, in addition to political scientists and sociologists concerned about innovations of the country within the center East and different constructing areas, should be good served by way of this cutting edge work.The articles by way of an array of extraordinary students hide a variety of themes: the connection of ideology to tribal and nation energy, comparisons among diversified neighborhood styles of tribe-state interplay, ancient case stories from North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Iran extending to the modern interval; theoretical and methodological inquiries, and systematic stories of the literature on tribes and states. The articles argue opposed to a unilinear method of the research of tribes and kingdom formation via emphasizing that states usually existed along tribes or even created tribes for his or her personal reasons. a few case stories emphasize the incompatibility of states and tribalism, whereas others illustrate the various parts during which tribes truly more desirable instead of impeded nation formation.

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In Medina there were also individual émigrés, dissident groups, and fractions of clans from other parts of Arabia who left their people to join the Prophet. Eventually the umma included the converts made from among the aristocratic clans of Mecca and the various tribes in western Arabia who became allied to the Muslim community. Thus, the components of the umma were disparate, including individuals, groups without a lineage basis, and clans with a definite tribal affiliation. The underlying unifying concept of the community was religious, though there were strong undertones of lineage appeal owing to the fact that the concept of umma was fused with concepts of tribal alliance; the image of the religious chief was identified with that of the traditional clan shaykh.

Apart from Bedouin auxiliaries in Mesopotamia, Arabs were removed from the caliphal armies. The state military apparatus was no longer identified with the tribal armies that had conquered the empire, and the remnants of these armies became part of the subject population. 14 Similarly, the Umayyad and 'Abbasid caliphs displaced Arab shaykhs in favor of administrators drawn from the former Byzantine and Sasanian bureaucracies. The tax-collecting bureaus were used to strengthen the financial and political position of the caliphate at the expense of Arab tribal elites.

Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age (New York, 1973). 18. On the concept of the caliph as emperor, see Oleg Grabar, The Formation of Islamic Art (New Haven, 1973); Patricia Crone and Martin Hinds, God's Caliph (Cambridge, 1987); H. A. R. Gibb, "Constitutional Organization," in M. Khadduri and H. , 1955), pp. 3-28. html (1 of 2) [7/4/2007 9:48:52 AM] Document 19. On the Safavid theory of monarchy, see A. K. S. Lambton, "Quis Custodiet Custodes: Some Reflections on the Persian Theory of Government," Studia Islamica 5 (1956): 125-148; 6 (1956): 125146.

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