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By Francis Dvornik

Japanese eu historical past textual content. Hardcover.

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The Slavs: Their Early History and Civilization

Japanese eu historical past textual content. Hardcover.

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The eighteenth century produced further change in urban Latin American society. Because of increasingly important strategic considerations, both the Spanish and Portuguese crowns became interested in revitalizing the economies of their American possessions, and both monarchies began to experiment with economic reform. To what extent these reforms responded to preexisting changes, such as gradual population growth, and to what extent the reforms themselves produced these changes is difficult to determine, but in general both the Pombaline reforms in Brazil and the Bourbon reforms in Spanish America increased social and economic mobility, moving the cities of Latin America from corporate-based societies to societies based on both corporate membership and economically determined social class.

Considered here are major economic cycles from which some persons benefited, while others suffered. After the first establishment of the estates, the acquisition of a property by one person often meant the displacement of at least one other person. Despite this flux and social mobility, the group persisted and enhanced its reputation and image over time. But it should be understood that the large landowning group in the Spanish and Portuguese American domains was not restricted to agricultural pursuits.

To what extent these reforms responded to preexisting changes, such as gradual population growth, and to what extent the reforms themselves produced these changes is difficult to determine, but in general both the Pombaline reforms in Brazil and the Bourbon reforms in Spanish America increased social and economic mobility, moving the cities of Latin America from corporate-based societies to societies based on both corporate membership and economically determined social class. The reforms themselves combined liberal and conservative strainsincreased trade, government sponsorship of new investment, opening of new areas to colonization, revitalization of old institutions.

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