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Download Optical Networking Crash Course by Steven Shepard PDF

By Steven Shepard

Writer Steven Shepard's textual content explains what is what, who is who and the way all of it works jointly within the speed-of-light international of optical networking. protecting every thing from applied sciences and kit to businesses and opponents, he delves into enterprise concepts, destiny purposes, and convergance possibilities.

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Optical Networking Crash Course

Writer Steven Shepard's textual content explains what is what, who is who and the way all of it works jointly within the speed-of-light global of optical networking. masking every thing from applied sciences and kit to businesses and rivals, he delves into enterprise options, destiny functions, and convergance possibilities.

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Example text

Third, the layers have no idea how the layers around them do what they do; they simply know that they do it. This is called transparency. Finally, seven is not a magic number. If the industry should decide that we need an eighth layer on the model, or that layer five is redundant, then the model will be changed. The key is functionality. It is important to understand that the OSI Model is nothing more than a conceptual way of thinking about data communications. It isn’t hardware; it isn’t software.

For example, if the network consists of a single, dedicated, point-topoint circuit, then very little could happen to the data during the transmission, because the data would consist of an uninterrupted stream. The Transport Layer would have little to do to guarantee the delivery of the message. However, what if the architecture of the network is not as robust as a private line circuit? What if this is a packet network, in which case the message is broken into segments that are independently routed through the switch and router fabric of the network?

For example, if a call arrives in the United States from a European country, the receiving American carrier must convert the incoming E-1 signal to T-1. If a call originates from Canada and is terminated in Australia, the Canadian originating carrier must convert the call to E-1 before transmitting it to Australia. When T-1 and E-1 were released in the early 1960s, they offered more bandwidth than any single customer could conceivably use. In fact, they were intended to be used initially as intra-network trunking systems, and therefore represented technology that customers would never see.

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