By Gregory Rolina
This e-book discusses the specifics of safeguard laws relating to nuclear threat and the way specialists give a contribution to the security of nuclear installations. Drawing on learn carried out in collaboration with the French Institute for Radiological defense and Nuclear protection (IRSN), the information which are recommend depend upon a evaluate of the practices of experts in human and organizational elements pertaining to nuclear protection. the writer indicates that the French technique is determined by preserving a technical discussion among the regulatory authority (ASN), IRSN and nuclear operators. this technique of possibility administration is named "French cooking" within the Anglo-Saxon global, the place a extra formal regulatory procedure is taken. This technical discussion does although carry convinced advantages, rather within the box of human and organizational elements, the place it permits an development of the kingdom of information, which continues to be incomplete. After the Fukushima twist of fate, within the face of an ongoing eu and international re-examination of the security of nuclear energy and alignment in the direction of the Anglo-Saxon average, the French cooking technique might but manage to make an important contribution. This paintings should be of curiosity to all excited by nuclear strength engineering and within the box of possibility administration and nuclear safety.
Includes a preface by way of Jacques Repussard, Director common, IRSN, France, and a postface through Erik Hollnagel, Professor, Institute of local overall healthiness examine, collage of Southern Denmark / leader advisor, Centre for caliber, quarter of Southern Denmark.
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This booklet discusses the specifics of safeguard laws concerning nuclear danger and the way specialists give a contribution to the security of nuclear installations. Drawing on study performed in collaboration with the French Institute for Radiological security and Nuclear safeguard (IRSN), the information which are recommend depend on a overview of the practices of experts in human and organizational elements relating nuclear protection.
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Extra resources for Human and Organizational Factors in Nuclear Safety: The French Approach to Safety Assessments
P. 126. 67 As will be seen, these multiple layers of barriers are the central feature of defense in depth, a principle used in the design of nuclear power plants. I. 4. France’s Half-Hearted Nuclear Safety Regulations As Anne-Sophie Millet states in her thesis on French nuclear law (1991), while most nuclear countries quickly passed legislation governing the oversight of nuclear facilities, in 1963 France’s government promulgated a simple decree distinguished by its weak tenor. Bénédicte Vallet lists several reasons that led to the promulgation of this decree on basic nuclear facilities68.
Each type had its own role and its own area of expertise: “The generalist engineers are pooled by reactor type (ordinary water reactors, fast neutron reactors and the such) and are in charge of assessing the safety of each facility subjected to review…. These generalist engineers apply the experience they acquire primarily to formulate opinions. They are responsible for constantly updating the acquired body of knowledge on safety for the type of reactor facilities being reviewed, whether it is safety under normal operating conditions or safety in incident and accident situations.
In actual fact, people did not really pose a problem insofar as the engineers were convinced that the technology was safe provided all the automatic controls were left to do their job. … More than just people, the entire process of operating a facility took a back seat to design. ”98 This situation was not specific to France. The sociologist Charles Perrow has stressed the fact that nuclear power stations in the United States were designed based solely on engineers’ performance criteria without notice of the lessons taught by human factors studies, which attempted to include the conditions under which hardware was used by operators.