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3. Radionuclides frequently used in industry and research Table III. Radionuclides frequently used in industry and research Sodium-22 Phosphorus-32 Calcium-47 Cobalt-58 *Cobalt-60 Gallium-67 Selenium-75 Krypton-81m Yttrium-88 Strontium-89 *Strontium-90 Yttrium-90 Technetium-99 Technetium-99m Ruthenium-106 Palladium-103 Indium-111 Iodine-123 Iodine-125 Iodine-129 Barium-133 *Caesium-137 Promethium-147 Gadolinium-153 *Iridium-192 Mercury-197 Thallium-201 Radon-222 *Radium-226 Plutonium-238 Iodine-131 Xenon-133 *Californium-252 * Although these radioactive materials are also used in medicine, they are used principally for radiation therapy, and should not be found when individuals are monitored.

After completion of the measurement, the gamma spectrum is processed to determine the radionuclides present. The time needed for this is usually less than 30 seconds. The possibility of storing spectra in a non-volatile memory and transfering them to a computer or over a remote link for expert review can be useful. This is especially so if problems cannot be resolved on the spot. In many ways the instrumentation for border monitoring is still in its infancy, and more development work is needed to improve its ease of use and ruggedness.

The possibility of storing spectra in a non-volatile memory and transfering them to a computer or over a remote link for expert review can be useful. This is especially so if problems cannot be resolved on the spot. In many ways the instrumentation for border monitoring is still in its infancy, and more development work is needed to improve its ease of use and ruggedness. 1. Causes of innocent alarms As discussed in the main text and illustrated in Fig. 1, the main reasons for innocent alarms of border monitoring systems are medical applications of radioactive materials as well as legal shipments of radioactive materials such as naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), consumer products, and labelled radionuclides.

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