By Hans-Georg Voss
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Extra info for Curiosity and Exploration. Theories and Results
Activation increase to an extreme range is not always aversive to the organism ; which can learn to perceive arousal jags positively when they are predictive of a subsequent reduction of arousal. Such considerations are also important in anxiety research (see Birbaumer ; 1973). On the basis of a systematic relationship between changes in activation level and positive or negative outcomes; the connections can be described with greater complexity than before. "One hypothesis that obtrudes itself is that the degree of arousal increase is crucial—that moderate increases are rewarding; whereas extreme increases are aversive [Berlyne; 1967; p.
Strictly, only one theory of curiosity behavior remains, and that is Berlyne's theory (1960, 1963, 1967). Furthermore, various theoretical formulations exist that attempt to explain perception in reference to complex stimulation with higher order principles (McReynolds, 1962; Munsinger & Kessen, 1966a; White, 1959). , Livson, 1967; Maw & Maw, 1961). These systems, each of which is characteristic of one of the described theoretical levels, will be presented in later sections. Here we shall limit ourselves to a general psychological view and discuss McReynolds's theoretical approach, Berlyne's theory, and Livson's attempted definition.
He uses experimental findings from human and animal psychology as well as theoretical ideas from other realms of research and formulates the following definition of curiosity: "Curiosity is 44 3. Theoretical Approaches such a tendency or motive to acquire or transform information under circumstances that offer no immediate adaptive value for such activity [1967; p. " Livson avoids any reference to motivational sources, even though he uses the word motive in his definition and limits the adaptive aspect in such a way that "in Lewinian terms .