By Almut Schuez, Robert Miller
The learn of parts within the cerebral cortex has a protracted background, bringing empirical information into shut relation with primary conceptual concerns in regards to the cortex. the topic is at the moment being revitalized with the appearance of recent experimental equipment and this e-book brings a contemporary viewpoint to the examine of those parts. Cortical components: harmony and variety explores the correspondence of alternative equipment of mapping components, the correlation among connectivity and components, interspecies adaptations and the developmental beginning of areal alterations. Cortical parts also are mentioned with regards to sensible proof, discussing for example similarities in cybernetic functionality among various sensory parts. The e-book additionally considers morphological substrates for integration among components earlier than exploring basic questions frequently requested in neurobiology and mind idea.
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Extra resources for Cortical Areas: Unity and Diversity (Conceptual Advances in Brain Research)
Very often, © 2002 Taylor & Francis Architectonic Mapping 33 these criteria are weighted relative to each other, in a different way by each observer. In addition, the criteria are sometimes difficult to formalize objectively. This can be illustrated by the example of such a “simple” area as Brodmann’s area 4. Typical for this area are giant pyramidal cells in layer V (Betz cells), which were discovered by Betz as characteristic cells of the motor area of man, chimpanzee, other primates and dog (Betz, 1874).
Even if we compensate for interindividual differences in the macroscopical anatomy of the brains, numerous differences between the maps can hardly be explained. , 1949). In a more recent study, transitional areas were defined which exhibited mixed architectonic features of areas 46 and 45 (Rajkowska and Goldman-Rakic, 1995b). Considerable differences between the maps can also be found with respect to the anterior border of area 4, the extrastriate visual cortex, and the parietal cortex, where Brodmann found only a few areas, but recent observations revealed a much higher number of areas.
Cytoarchitectonic or receptor architectonic families of cortical areas) of the cortical organization. , 1999; Roland and Zilles, 1994, 1996a,b, 1998). , 2000) have been defined in ten human post mortem brains. The areal borders were labeled in corresponding digitized histological sections, and subjected to 3-D reconstruction. , 1999b). , 1997, 1999a; Schormann and Zilles, 1997, 1998). , 1999b). The overlapping cortical areas of individual brains and their architectonic areas in the standard reference brain result in probability or population maps, which display the intersubject variability in the extent, shape and topography of cortical areas.