By Raymond J. Lukens Ph. D. (auth.)
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Small droplets that fail to bounce but retain a spherical shape may run off inclined surfaces to reduce deposition (HORSFALL,1956). At the other extreme of acute contact angles, droplets spread out into a film. The films of many droplets coalesce to cause a flow of solvent off the leaf. Part of the fungicide is lost in the drain-off. Thus, as the contact angle' is reduced, droplet spread increases, and retention passes through a maximum range and declines (RICH, 1954). The use of surfactants to achieve proper spreading of droplets can lead to drain-off if the nature of the plant surface is ignored.
ROTHSTEIN and HAYES (1956) found no exchange of Mn+2 and Ca +2 ions in solution with those of the cell as measured with radioisotopes. Undoubtedly, ionic substances are converted to nonionic materials to penetrate the cytoplasmic membrane. Metal chelates that are toxic in the partially chelated form are considered to permeate fungous cells as full chelates, which are not ionized (BLOCK, 1955; ZENTMYER, RICH and HORSFALL, 1960). Free fatty acids may serve as carriers of cations across membranes, also (QUASTEL, 1967).
Granular formulations may utilize ground corn cobs, vermiculite, particles of plastics and sand as well as clays. The diluent may be used to merely dilute the particles of fungicide or may serve as a carrier with the fungicide adsorbed to the particles of diluent (DUYF]ES, 1958). Although diluents are considered inert, they can catalyze hydrolysis of chlorinated fungicides to hydrochloric acid. , 1957; MILLER, 1957; BURCHFIELD, 1967). Reduced performance may occur when cationic fungicides bind to clays or organic diluents (ARK and WILSON, 1956).