By Steven S. Zumdahl, Susan A. Zumdahl
CHEMISTRY permits the reader to profit chemistry fundamentals speedy and simply by means of emphasizing a considerate method equipped on challenge fixing. For the 8th variation, authors Steven and Susan Zumdahl have prolonged this method via emphasizing problem-solving ideas in the Examples and through the textual content narrative. CHEMISTRY speaks on to the reader approximately easy methods to method and clear up chemical problems--to learn how to imagine like a chemist--so that they could observe the method of problem-solving to all features in their lives.
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Extra resources for Chemistry
To be sure that the compound is isopropyl alcohol, we should run several more density experiments. 62 Besides being a tool for the identiﬁcation of substances, density has many other uses. For example, the liquid in your car’s lead storage battery (a solution of sulfuric acid) changes density because the sulfuric acid is consumed as the battery discharges. 30 g/cm3. 20 g/cm3, the battery will have to be recharged. Density measurement is also used to determine the amount of antifreeze, and thus the level of protection against freezing, in the cooling system of a car.
The following rules should be applied when rounding. Rules for Rounding 1. In a series of calculations, carry the extra digits through to the ﬁnal result, then round. 2. If the digit to be removed a. is less than 5, the preceding digit stays the same. 3. Rule 2 is consistent with the operation of electronic calculators. b. is equal to or greater than 5, the preceding digit is increased by 1. 4. Although rounding is generally straightforward, one point requires special emphasis. 348 needs to be rounded to two signiﬁcant ﬁgures.
3 because 4 is less than 5. It is incorrect to round sequentially. 4. When rounding, use only the ﬁrst number to the right of the last signiﬁcant ﬁgure. It is important to note that Rule 1 above usually will not be followed in the Examples in this text because we want to show the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures in each step of a problem. This same practice is followed for the detailed solutions given in the Solutions Guide. However, when you are doing problems, you should carry extra digits throughout a series of calculations and round to the correct number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures only at the end.