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By McEvoy J.E. (ed.)

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Fragmentations by Photoinduced Electron Transfer where, AE = E°a - E °. ) for radical cation cleavages, and AE = E~,. 06 kcal/mol). The thermodynamic factors determine where the unpaired electron is initially localized (A or B) and which of the cleavage modes (homolytic or heterolytic) takes place. Of course in closely balanced cases, the populations of different radical ions (with the unpaired electron on A or B) and different cleavage modes may compete with each other. The radicals, wherein the electron is added to, or removed from, a formally nonbonding orbital, are easier to reduce or to oxidize than the corresponding neutrals, where the electron is added to an antibonding orbital (radical anion), or removed from a bonding orbital (radical cation).

It may be added that the removal of electrons from non-bonding orbitals does not have to weaken the bond; it may in certain cases (for example in hydrazines) lead to bond strengthening [76]. The homolytic bond strengths (AGh) in organic compounds vary from ca. 5 eV. Removal (or addition) of an electron from (or to) organic compounds can, in principle, activate even the strongest bonds. In PET systems high energy radical ions with redox potentials ranging from - 2 . 5 V vs SCE can be easily produced.

The cleavage of these species may produce a radical and a neutral (most likely) or an anion and a radical cation (less likely). The photochemistry of these salts is, however, rather complicated [7, 118-120]. Both direct and energy-transfer sensitized cleavages are observed with heterolysis and homolysis products detected, but the details are not yet completely understood. ,. Ar + R~ ° R 2 + At" I Ar--I--* Ar + Ar--IwAr +e or Ar---I + Ar" + -Ar--I~Ar Ar I At---B • R I Ar AI" I. Ar--B--R t Ar -e 01" AF ÷" [ Ar---B----R 1 Ar Scheme 7.

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