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Additional resources for Building Large Frame Relay Networks with OSPF Summary
Data packets are forwarded to the Gateway, which is the root of the infrastructure network, that drops the packet. Unicast transmission of route update messages leads to the highest data packet loss rate, due to the delay introduced by the protection of signaling frames. Routes are not refreshed in time and routing tables entries disappear. On the opposite, Figure 2 presents the losses of data packets due to retransmissions by the infrastructure nodes. This situation happens whenever a mobile has moved but the routing entry in the infrastructure network still references the old base station.
Moreover, we found that the Vegas loss predictor, embedded in TCP NewReno-LP, proved very accurate in classifying packet losses. Finally, we also defined an ideal scheme that assumes the exact knowledge of packet losses and provides an upper bound to the performance of all possible schemes based on loss differentiation algorithms. The TCP enhanced with Vegas loss predictor well approaches this ideal bound. Azizoglu (Tel Aviv, Israel, March 2000). Stochastic Modeling of TCP over Lossy Links. In Proceedings of INFOCOM 2000.
Note that our scheme approaches this bound for all the considered scenarios. 29 Martignon 30 Correlated Losses To account for the effects of multi-path fading typical of wireless environments, we also investigated the behavior of TCP NewReno-LP in the presence of links affected by correlated errors, modeled as described in Section 3. We considered two different scenarios with wireless link capacities equal to 2 and 5 Mbit/s, and a Round Trip Time equal to 100 ms. Fig. 5(a) shows the steadystate goodput achieved by the TCP versions analyzed in this paper as a function of the packet error rate in the Bad state.