By R. K. S. Wood FRS (auth.), John A. Bailey (eds.)
This booklet is a suite of papers offered at a NATO complicated learn Workshop on "Biology and Molecular Biology of Plant-Pathogen Interactions" which was once held at Dillington university, Ilminster, united kingdom, 1-6 September 1985. It were preceded through complex research Institutes at Porte Conte, Sardinia in 1975 and at Cape Sounion, Greece in 1981. in recent times, equipment for the manipulation and move of genes have revolutionized our realizing of gene constitution and serve as. It used to be hence opportune to collect scientists from unique disciplines, e. g. plant pathology, cytology, biochemistry and molecular biology to debate our current knowing of mobile interactions among crops. We additionally explored how the aptitude provided by way of the more moderen molecular applied sciences may possibly most sensible be discovered. It quickly turned obvious on the Workshop, and is a repeated topic of this book, that destiny learn will want targeted multi disciplinary programmes. a few of the new methods might be beneficial. for instance, immunocytochemistry does, for the 1st time, enable molecules to be positioned accurately inside of contaminated tissues. both, the equipment of DNA isolation and gene transformation will facilitate the isolation and characterization of genes linked to pathogenesis and specificity. the outline on the Workshop of immunocytochemical protocols and of transformation structures for pathogenic fungi have already inspired an upsurge in examine on plant-pathogen relationships. The papers talk about many interactions among crops and fungal and bacterial pathogens, but in addition offer a comparability with mycorrhizal and symbiotic relationships, and people related to mycoparasites.
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Extra resources for Biology and Molecular Biology of Plant-Pathogen Interactions
During this intracellular biotrophic phase of endomycorrhizal associations, the hyphal contents of the fungi show typical cytological properties (Figs. lb and 2b) with an active protoplasm rich in organelles and vacuoles which often contain dense granules, believed to contain polyphosphate [2,32,33]. Cytological studies of the fungal and host plasmalemmae indicate that both are active membranes. The fungal haustorium has a three-layered (Fig. 2c), PATAg-positive plasmalemma which in VA endomycorrhizae is also the site of both ATPase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities [30,34,35].
This usually leads to bidirectional nutrient exchange between the two partners and highly beneficial effects on plant growth [1,2]. The fungi forming endomycorrhizae have clear-cut host ranges but the nature and degree of specificity between associates are quite variable from one type of endomycorrhiza to another . Ericoid endomycorrhizae, for example, can be considered as quite specific as they are formed by a very limited number of species in the Ericaceae and by fungi belonging to, or closely related to, one ascomycetous species.
However, for the proper interpretation of the resulting biochemical and genetic data, a detailed understanding of the cytology of such interactions will be essential. One plant-pathogen combination which has become increasingly appropriate for such research is that between Phaseolus vulgaris and Collectotrichum lindemuthianum, a hemibiotrophic fungus. C. lindemuthianum was the first plant pathogen to be shown to exist as various physiological races exhibiting distinct virulence and avirulence on different cultivars of a host species .