By Ashim K. Datta
Providing a starting place in warmth and mass delivery, this e-book covers engineering ideas of warmth and mass move. the writer discusses organic content material, context, and parameter regimes and provides functional purposes for organic and biomedical engineering, commercial nutrition processing, environmental regulate, and waste administration. The booklet comprises end-of-chapter difficulties and sections highlighting key strategies and significant terminology It deals cross-references for simple entry to comparable components and correct formulation, in addition to special examples of delivery phenomena, and outlines of actual methods. It covers mechanisms of diffusion, capillarity, convection, and dispersion.
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Extra resources for Biological and Bioenvironmental Heat and Mass Transfer (Food Science and Technology)
Unlike conduction and convection, radiation does not require a medium. 1714 × 10−8 2 4 m K hr ft2 ◦ R4 Net energy transfer depends on surface and geometric factors. Radiative heat transfer will be studied in detail in Chapter 8. 4 • Chapter Summary—Modes of Heat Transfer Conductive Heat Transfer (page 15) 1. Translational, rotational, and vibrational transfer of energy from one molecule to another through physical contact is termed as conduction or diffusion. 2. Fourier’s law, given by qx = −k ∂∂Tx describes the conduction mode of heat transfer.
1 Solution to Specific Situations: Need for Boundary Conditions Consider a system such as a slab with temperature variation only in one dimension. Also, consider the system to be at steady-state and having no heat generation. 9) As expected, such general solutions have constants (C1 and C2 ) yet to be determined. More information is needed – need for boundary conditions to evaluate these constants. 11 are substituted in Eqn. 9 to obtain T1 T2 = C2 = C1 L + C2 and solve for C1 and C2 . These constants are then replaced in Eqn.
In metals there are unbound electrons that translate freely in the material. These electrons allow for a faster and more efficient means of heat conduction in metallic materials than in non-metallic materials. 2. In a liquid, the intermolecular spacings are larger than in solids. Molecules move more randomly. 2. In a gas, the molecules are farther apart. Molecular movements are most random and interactions are less frequent. 2). 18 CHAPTER 2. 1) where qx is the rate of heat flow in the x direction, A is area perpendicular to the x direction through which the heat flows, k is the thermal conductivity of the medium (solid, liquid, or gas), and T is the temperature at a location x.