By Ron J. Doyle (Eds.)
Volume 310 of Methods in Enzymology is the 1st quantity committed exclusively to biofilm learn equipment. It presents a modern resource booklet for almost any form of experimental process concerning biofilms. It comprises bioengineering, molecular, genetic, microscopic, chemical, non-stop tradition, and actual equipment. This quantity will function a place to begin for destiny developments.
The significantly acclaimed laboratory regular for greater than 40 years, Methods in Enzymology is likely one of the so much hugely revered courses within the box of biochemistry. due to the fact 1955, each one quantity has been eagerly awaited, often consulted, and praised by way of researchers and reviewers alike. Now with greater than three hundred volumes (all of them nonetheless in print), the sequence comprises a lot fabric nonetheless correct today--truly a necessary e-book for researchers in all fields of lifestyles sciences
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Extra info for Biofilms
39 O. Strunk and W. chemie. de/pub/ARB / (1997). 40 S. MOiler, C. S. Kristensen, L. K. Poulsen, J. M. Carstensen, and S. Molin, Appl. Environ. MicrobioL 61, 741 (1995). 4I The characteristics of some of the most common fluorescent conjugates are summarized in Table I. It is important to note that when performing multilabeling experiments, it is essential to choose fluorophores whose excitation/emission wavelengths overlap minimally. It is also important to note that alternate markers, such as digoxigenin or biotin, can be used for in situ hybridization experiments.
62 D. G. Davies and G. G. Geesey, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 860 (1995). 63 G. A. O ' T o o l e and R. Kolter, MoL Microbiol. 28, 449 (1998). [ 11 REPORTERSYSTEMS 15 nondestructive. Reporter genes include, for example, the lacZ gene (encoding/3-galactosidase requiring a fluorescent substrate analog such as fluorescein di-/3-D-galactopyranoside), the lux or luc systems (for bacterial bioluminescence or firefly luciferase gene, respectively), or the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene. These gene constructs are commercially available in various cloning vectors from molecular supply companies and may subsequently be placed under the control of a specific host promoter for study.
Stahl,Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 40, 337 (1986). 11C. R. Woese, Microbiol. Rev. 51, 221 (1987). 12R. I. Amann, W. Ludwig, and K. H. Schleifer, Microbiol. Rev. 59, 143 (1995). 13A. A. Massol-Dey£ J. Whallon, R. F. Hickey, and J. M. Tiedje, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 769 (1995). 14'15 However, for each new type of biofilm community, new antibodies are needed, which may indeed be a bottleneck in many studies. Standard histological embedding materials may be used, but these normally result in hard blocks that must be sectioned in a microtome, which is less convenient for this application.