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By Gary M. Feinman

The most tough difficulties dealing with modern archaeology is that of explaining the operation and variety of historical states. This quantity addresses the ways that historic states have been based and operated, an realizing of that's key to our skill to interpret a states upward thrust or fall.

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ECUADOR N r R. Motupe R. Lambayeque ~~-=- R. Zafia R. Jequetepeque R. Chieama R. Moehe R. Casma R. Culebras R. Huarmey R. Fortaleza R. Pativilea Chirrui Expansion R. Rimae 1st stage THE MESOPOTAMIAN CASE The alternation ofstrong centralized political control with periods ofturmoil is so characteristic ofMesopotamian history that the events recorded in royal inscriptions cannot be simply ignored: documentary and archaeological sources cluster in the periods ofpeace, and the recurrent effects on the social institutions we are describing are too evident to be missed.

Just as Calakmul's rise came at El Mirador's expense, so later did Tikal's rise come at the expense of other sites (Folan et al. 1995; Marcus 1976a, 1988, 1992a, 1993a). 64 I JOYCE MARCUS a battle with Jaguar Paw is claimed by the ruler of Tikal (as expected, this event is not mentioned at Calakmul), the person shown as prisoner is not Jaguar Paw, but a Calakmullord with a different name (Marcus 1976a:52, 1988 :5; Marcus and Folan 1994: 23; Schele and Freidel 1990: 206 -7). Were it not for this claim by Tikal, we would have interpreted the period from AD 600 to 810 as an uninterrupted, nonviolent time for Calakmul's rulers.

22. Mycenaean tombs: a, ashlar masonry tholos appropriate for a royal family; b, cavern excavated in bedrock, appropriate for a noble or wealthy commoner (redrawn from Taylour 1983). "psychoduct" through which the spirit of the deceased ruler could leave and return (Folan et al. 1995). 21. Tomb 1from Structure Ill, Calakmul, Mexico, the burial cif a Maya lord (redrawn from Folan et al. 1995). Vertical distances havebeen exaggerated to show the cifferings. intrusive through the floor of Room 6 of Structure Ill, the palace already described above.

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