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Extra resources for Antineutrino Detection for Monitoring Nuclear Explosions
Such an application might be of interest only if a detector array were built for other purposes, such as physics research or for longer range monitoring of higher yield tests. Water Detectors Highly pure water detectors without dopants are not feasible at ranges greater than a few tens of kilometers because of the overwhelming backgrounds from ambient radioactivity. Dopants such as gadolinium or chlorine that allow for neutron recovery could help reduce the background rate dramatically. GadoIinium is too expensive (- $100 per gram) to be feasible for large arrays, but detectors using chlorine salts would be less expensive.
However, antineutinos from reactors will ultimately limit the sensitive range of doped detectors, at least with the current design. 5 events per day to several dozen per day per 50,000 ton module depending on location, with the lower extreme obtained in remote locations such as Australia and the South Pole and the upper extreme applicable in regions densely populated with reactors such as France and Japan. 30 Table 8: The singles rates from neutron and positron-like coincidental backgrounds in the fiducial volume.