By J.H.S. Blaxter, Frederick S. Russell, Maurice Yonge (Eds.)
Quantity 25 of this authoritative evaluation sequence maintains the excessive typical set via the editors some time past. Marine biologists all over the place have come to price and revel in the wide range of thought-provoking papers written via invited specialists. during this quantity are stories of 4 animal teams which span the whole variety of the marine foodstuff chain. The function of parasites in ecology is a starting to be curiosity and the parasites of zooplankton are defined intimately for the 1st time. points of thegastropods, cephalopods and fish existence also are tested intimately.
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Extra info for Advances in Marine Biology, Vol. 19
Attacks by the nudibranch Hermissenda crassicornis removed only a few of the tentacles but sometimes the entire lophophore (Ronan, 1978). Ollivier et al. (1977) indicated high mortality rates in Phoronopsis harmeri populations 50 ('. (1. EMIG which decrease by about 60% after June, probably due to predation by Hermissenda crassicornis which is then very abundant: the adult phoronid abundance patterns may be strongly influenced by predators. According to Virnstein (1979), the abundance of Phoronis psammophila is apparently not significantly regulated by predators such as crabs or fishes.
Emig (197313) estimated that the biomass of Phoronis psammophila was about 45 g/mZ wet-weight (15 g dry weight) for 15000 individuals, the anterior part of the body being about 3 g and 1 g (wet and dry weights respectively) for this number of animals. However, the response to a slight disturbance (Emig, 1966) is only a folding of the lophophore near the tube opening. The anterior part of the body with the lophophore (which protrudes over the surface, sometimes up to 3cm, particularly in burrowing or encrusting species) is the most vulnerable to attack by predators.
The vertical zones whose nomenclature is used in the present review are given according to PBrhs (1967). Phoronis Ovalis. The density is great owing to the small body size of this species; it reaches 150 individuals/cm2. The bathymetric distribution is a t present from low tide mark to about 50 m. Phoronis ovalis lives usually in coraligenous and detritic communities between 20 and 50m (Fig. 29b). Recently specimens have been recorded in shallow waters by Stancyck et al. (1976),Scelzo (1976) and Emig and Bailey-Brock, (1980), and in greater depths by Emig (1977~).