By Alexander S. Raikhel (auth.), Kerry F. Harris (eds.)
Volume nine during this sequence includes 4 chapters on vectors that have an effect on human or animal well-being and 6 chapters on plant pathogens and their vectors. In bankruptcy 1, Alex S. Raikhel discusses vitellogenesis in mosquitoes: the cornerstone of the reproductive cycle concerning big creation of yolk precursors by means of the fats physique and their accumulation in constructing oocytes. In anautogeneous mosquitoes, vitellogenesis depends at the availability of a blood meal and, thus, is associated with transmission of pathogens. consequently, elucidation of mechanisms governing the mosquito vitellogenesis is important for the profitable improvement of novel suggestions in vector and ailment administration. prior reports on mosquito vitellogenesis have dealt predominantly with hormonal regulate. The objective of this evaluate, in spite of the fact that, is to summarize major development which has been accomplished in knowing mosquito vitellogenesis on the mobile, biochemical and molecular degrees. it's with those disciplines that we predict to completely comprehend the mechanisms governing this key strategy in mosquito reproduction.
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Kelly et aI. (79, 80) have suggested that OSH may act on the ovary affecting its production of ecdysone. A peptide factor, partially purified from ovaries, indeed arrested egg development (13). Later, Borovsky (14) has reported purification of a factor from mosquito ovaries which inhibits secretion of digestive enzymes in the midgut. lA), but it is not clear whether we are dealing with a single or multiple factors affecting one or several sites (14, 105). In mosquito midgut epithelium, there are about 500 endocrine cells containing peptides, which cross-react with antisera to FMRF-amide, a molluscan cardioaccelerator, and to a number of vertebrate peptide hormones (23,25).
5 nm gold particles mark a small Vg subunit (arrows) and 15 nm gold particles a large Vg subunit. x 150,000. (C) and (D) Immunoflourescent localization of Vn and VCP in the yolk bodies of oocytes. Frozen sections of vitello genic ovaries were labeled by polyclonal antibodies against VgfVn (C) or VCP (D) followed by rhodamine-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary antibodies. Note that, in contrast to Vn, which occupies the entire yolk body, VCP is located as a rim around Vn. CP, coated pit; ES, endosome; MV, microvillus; MYB, mature yolk body; PS, perioocytic space; TYB, transitional yolk body.
A full-length cDNA coding for VCP has been cloned and characterized and cloning of its gene(s} is in progress (26). A number of genes for ribosomal RNAs and proteins have been characterized as well (44). Recently, a lysosomal protease has been purified (27), and its cDNA clone isolated (Cho and Raikhel, unpublished). Once these gene sys- 1. Mosquito Vitellogenesis 31 tems are structurally characterized, further progress in elucidating regulation of their expression, as well as their future biotechnological applications, will depend on the availability of gene transformation in mosquitoes.