By Jason Philip Coy
The tale of Germany, a key participant in international diplomatic and fiscal affairs, is important to our knowing of world heritage and the modern global. masking greater than 2,000 years of historical past, a short historical past of Germany offers a concise account of the occasions, humans, and specified customs and traditions that experience formed Germany from precedent days to the current. simple proof, a chronology, a bibliography, and a listing of recommended readings around out this insightful and finished source.
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It appears that the druids functioned as both priests and monks, presiding over religious rites and preserving Celtic religious lore by memorizing hundreds of sacred verses. The druids likely practiced animism, the worship of nature spirits, worshipping in sacred oak groves strewn with mistletoe. Apparently, the druids preached a belief in a form of reincarnation, which Caesar viewed mainly in its role in inciting Celtic warriors to battlefield valor. The Romans also described the druids as soothsayers, who foretold the future by observing the flight of birds and through the ritual sacrifice of animals and enjoyed tremendous prestige within Celtic society.
Charlemagne, known to the Germans as Karl der Grosse, carved out a Germanic empire that eventually stretched across much of the European continent. His empire blended elements of Roman administration, Christian religiosity, and Germanic military organization, laying the foundations for medieval Europe and for German society. A devout Christian, Charlemagne resumed the Franks’ struggle against the pagan tribes on the borders of their sprawling empire, including the Slavs, the Avars, and the Saxons, a Germanic tribe that had stubbornly refused conversion to Christianity.
To gain their allegiance, Frederick II made the German magnates virtually autonomous in their own territories. After the death of Frederick’s son, Conrad IV (1228–54), the most powerful German dukes elected multiple claimants to the imperial throne, leading to another chaotic period known as the Great Interregnum that lasted from 1256 to 1273. In the absence of strong central authority, centrifugal forces within the empire accelerated, as the German princes consolidated their control over their own territories, wresting even more authority from the emperor.