By Peter Hofschroer
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Extra resources for 1815 The Waterloo Campaign: Wellington, His German Allies and the Battles of Ligny and Quatre Bras
Nevertheless, historians have moved away from merely indicting liberal failures. Now they offer a more nuanced exploration of how social, political, and cultural factors undermined popular support for liberal goals. ; 152; 256; still useful for all parties is 189]. The German Centre Party seemed by its name to assign itself to the middle of the political spectrum. Yet because it represented the one-third of Germans who were Catholic, it also deserved its reputation as a 'people's party' (Volkspartei), rivalling the achievement of the socialists in establishing an organisational mass base.
It stresses the remarkable fairness that characterised most election campaigns and balloting procedures [69; 70; 276a: ch. 3]. And it chronicles the army's failure to indoctrinate German youth [95; 162; 246]. The precise weight that should be given to these factors remains in some doubt. But the defenders of the 'people's rights' were clearly more numerous and more powerful than scholars once believed. Parties and interest groups We turn now to nutshell descriptions of the major political parties in Wilhelmine Germany, indicating briefly where the revision of older views has been necessary.
As well as leading in the production of certain heavy chemicals, in pharmaceuticals, and in products derived through electrochemical means, Germany produced over 90 per cent of the world's synthetic dyes by 1900. Long before 1914 German exports had penetrated into virtually all geographic and sectoral niches once dominated by the British. This prompted a 'trade envy' among the latter that only backfired when British consumers insisted on the famous 'Made in Germany' label. The giant electrical and chemical enterprises that led this second industrial revolution are now household names: Siemens, 21 AEG, Bayer, BASF, Hoechst, and Schering.