By Tao Tao
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Extra resources for 0.8生活 (0.8 life: eight doctrine to create a healthy life)
1), we can easily detect the gradual development towards greater test directness in that the performance in language tests is increasingly in relation to language use in real-life situations. As Clark (1983:435–36) points out, there are three major advantages of communicative testing over structuralist and integrative testing. ” So the teachers are more willing to expend time and effort to develop and make effective use of them. Third, these procedures will engender a higher level of “interest and motivation” in students.
As these elements of language could be mobilized into four modes of language use, four skills are identified: listening, speaking, reading and writing. So, it might be called language system-referenced tests. The assessment of test performance is based on correctness, with reliability and objectivity being of high importance. 2 The integrative approach The integrative approach in the early period of psycholinguistic-sociolinguistic testing is based on American educationalist John Oller’s (1979) “pragmatic expectancy grammar” and “Unitary Competence Hypothesis” (Baker 1989; McNamara 1997).
In communicative testing, which aims to the measure the candidates’ ability to use language for communication, a theoretical framework for communicative competence is needed. In the following part, a number of influential models are outlined, based on which three implications for the framework construction in the present study are obtained. The concept of communicative competence is proposed by Hymes in reaction to Chomsky’s idea of competence. For Chomsky, competence is “the speaker-hearer’s knowledge of his language” (1965:4).